Examination system Master’s Level The examination system and the process for passing at the Master’s Level are transparent and goal-oriented. The examination system at the Master’s Level includes written and oral examinations as well as evaluated written work and various types of coursework (e.g. project work). The concept is based on the precepts of fairness, transparency, superior achievement and sophisticated evaluation. Grading scale Each completed examination is graded according to a grading scale from 6.0 (excellent) to 1.0 (useless). Satisfactory results are awarded grades from 6.0 to 4.0 inclusive, while results graded 3.5 to 1.0 are insufficient. The grading scale in detail: Grading scale 6.0 excellent 5.5 very good 5.0 good 4.5 satisfactory 4.0 marginal 3.5 unsatisfactory 3.0 poor 2.5 poor to very poor 2.0 very poor 1.5 very poor to useless 1.0 useless The grading scale is identical for all levels (Assessment, Bachelor’s, Master’s, Ph.D.). A grade below 4.0 is insufficient. Half grades are awarded. Quarter grades are only awarded for the Bachelor’s or Master’s Thesis. Weighting All achievements are weighted using a credit point system. The product of the grade and the number of credits results in the number of weighted credit points as a weighted grade (e.g. grade 4.0 x 6 credits = 24 weighted credit points). Grades below 4.0 result in the accumulation of negative weighted credit points (N-WCPs). If the examination results are unsatisfactory, the examination cannot be repeated. As a result, students accumulate N-WCPs. Once these have exceeded a certain level, a student's first attempt to complete the degree is considered as unsuccessful. Passing and repeating The Master’s Level is considered complete once 90 credits have been accumulated (however, the graded average of the weighted credits must result in an average of at least 4.0). No more than 13.5 N-WCPs may have been accumulated, and a grade of at least 4.0 must be achieved for the Master’s Thesis. In the Master’s Programme in Law and Economics, 120 credits must be completed and no more than 18 N-WCPs may be accumulated. If the Master’s Level is not passed in its entirety, the compulsory subjects for which the student did not achieve at least a grade of 4.0 must be repeated. For unsatisfactory examination results in the remaining subjects, you may repeat the same course or select a different one. A Master’s Thesis receiving a grade below 4.0 must be repeated.